terça-feira, 30 de abril de 2019
Já está disponível a edição de Maio. Este e outros milhares de relógios mostrados e explicados aqui, aqui ou aqui, no Relógios & Canetas online, a mais importante plataforma do seu género em língua portuguesa.
Nas primeiras horas da era Reiwa e no fim da era Heisei no Japão, e com o imperador Akihito a ser sucedido pelo seu filho Naruhito, recordamos aqui quando fomos recebidos em Tóquio pelo primeiro e pela imperatriz Michiko, no Palácio Imperial, em 1998.
Na foto, José Pedro Barreto (já falecido) é o que está no primeiro plano, na fila de jornalistas ocidentais que foram recebidos, nesse ano, pelo casal imperial. Estação Cronográfica está em terceiro lugar, o outro jornalista português presente, Francisco Azevedo e Silva, em segundo, e o jornalista John Simpson, da BBC, terceiro a contar da esquerda, também estava incluído na recepção. Foi a primeira e única vez que jornalistas portugueses foram recebidos por um Imperador do Japão.
Acceptance of the temporal norm has taken a form which, having passed through a long series of historical transformations, through civilizing and uncivilizing waves, and still in constant flux, is typical of the contemporary world: it has become continuous, uniform, almost without moments of high intensity but very demanding and pervasive. Above all, it has somehow hidden itself from the individual conscience and become perceived subjectively as a personal psychological inclination. [Norbert] Elias notes that those who declare themselves incapable of breaking the rules of punctuality have the impression that they are describing a personal idiosyncrasy rather than admitting the extent to which they have completely internalized a social habitus concerning coordination of times. ‘The time experience of people who belong to firmly time-regulated societies is one of many examples of personality structure which are compelling as biological characteristics, yet socially acquired’ (Elias, 1992: 141). This habitus of worrying about efficiency and punctuality has grown over a long period of history along with other sensitivities and rejections which, put together, are the result of what Elias has analysed as the ‘civilizing process’. In the contemporary world, external temporal restraint transforms itself into self-restraint, an all-pervading acute sensibility to all aspects of the temporal regulation of life.
segunda-feira, 29 de abril de 2019
Estátua de bronze em Wall Street, Nova Iorque, intitulada Double Check, de 1982, da autoria de John Seward Johnson II, localizada inicialmente no Zuccotti Park, em Manhattan. Em Julho de 2018, a estátua foi transferida para o canto noroeste da Broadway e Liberty. (arquivo Fernando Correia de Oliveira)
When the World Trade Centers collapsed on September 11, 2001, and downtown Manhattan was ravaged by destruction, debris, and dust, the solitary bronze businessman was as covered with concrete and dust, as everything else was that terrible day. So bewildered, lifelike and shocked did he look, the Double Check businessman was mistaken for a real person by firemen and rescue teams looking for survivors amidst the rubble. Many first responders were said to have approached this dazed, solitary man, only to startle when wiping the dust from him to find bronze underneath.
“Double Check” became an iconic memorial to the many businessmen who died in the attacks, with flowers and candles left there in the days that followed. The statue itself, dented and damaged by the falling masonry, was temporarily removed to the artist’s studio, where it was refurbished by Johnson. But the damage caused by the Twin Towers collapse he left, as a memorial.
A new plaque was added, stating, “the ‘everyman’ businessman presence in Liberty Park who before, had faded into the background amongst his human brethren, has been called ‘the survivor’....this bronze man sits again in his original site bearing scratches and bruises he sustained that day as a poignant reminder of hope and endurance for us all.”
Today, Zuccotti Park remains as popular as ever, with visitors flocking to the new Freedom Tower, 9/11 memorial and excellent museum, and the science fiction-looking Oculus transportation hub. Johnson’s anonymous businessman from the ’80s is still there, double-checking the contents of his briefcase, and still mostly overlooked by passersby.
The self-regulation in matters of time found in modern societies is not a biologically or psychologically determined phenomenon but a widespread social habitus which is accepted apparently spontaneously by nearly everyone. As [Norbert] Elias notes, a ‘self-regulation in terms of time which one encounters almost everywhere in later-stage societies is neither a biological datum, part of human nature, nor a metaphysical datum, part of an imaginary a priori, but a social datum, an aspect of the developing social habitus of humans which forms part of every individual person’.
domingo, 28 de abril de 2019
In what contemporary society calls ‘time’, [Norbert] Elias identified one of the central points of reference as that set of internal self-control mechanisms that civilized people adopt in every aspect of their lives. The ‘civilized’ temporal habitus is a form of social sensitivity, a way of behaving and of feeling both individual and part of the collectivity, which has emerged historically along a certain line of development, following a secular path whose design can be reconstructed although there is no one creator. If it is true that living in society requires a certain amount of denial of spontaneity and satisfaction of one’s instincts, then the kind of restraint which the different historical forms of collective life impose on their members varies spectacularly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in terms of time restraint, as the researches of numerous anthropologists, travellers and historians have confirmed.
sábado, 27 de abril de 2019
Placa da antiga joalharia, ourivesaria, relojoaria e escola de relojoaria Bowman Technical School, em Mount Joy, Pensilvânia (arquivo Fernando Correia de Oliveira)
O relógio tem os ponteiros apontados para as 08:17, norma nos Estados Unidos para a representação de mostradores, antes dela ser substituída pela das 10:11 em todo o mundo. Muitos mitos circulam sobre as duas posições dos ponteiros, alguns deles ligados à hora da morte de Abraham Lincoln. Mas o certo é apenas a razão estética. Ambas as soluções são equilibradas, mas a primeira sugere pessimismo e a segunda optimismo.
[...] what we sum up in the word ‘time’ is the attribution of meaning to change, done by human collectivities but capable of individual construction, and its organization in terms of goals and other affirmation of values. The creation of time might be a uniquely social way of pronouncing on the ‘meaning of life’. It simultaneously satisfies organizational goals – establishing when to work, when to play, when to pray – and moral objectives for the collectivity – deciding what is most important to achieve in life, i.e. in a period which seems circumscribed. It might be a good agreement with the gods and/or with one’s peers, to have respect for tradition or to make a lay project for control over nature, the growth of economic prosperity and scientific and technological progress. Whatever the historical context from which the experience of time springs, whatever the prevailing collective norms, the theme of time is always accompanied by the theme of limit (scarcity of time which is more or less consciously felt) and the theme of choice. Temporal norms would seem to play the eminently social role of guaranteeing the organization of work, the systematic satisfaction of reciprocal expectations in people’s behaviour towards each other, at the same time as they express evaluations and moral positions in face of the fundamental experience of change and the awareness of death. Human societies construct changeable ways of measuring time with the non-changeable purpose of connecting change to the meaning they intend to confer on collective works, history and individual life in general.
sexta-feira, 26 de abril de 2019
"Tommy Ticker", figura regulando o seu relógio de bolso por um relógio de sol, usada em vária documentação do Museu Nacional de Relojoaria, em Columbia, Pensilvânia e patente numa das paredes do edifício. Sob o lema - o tempo comanda a vida. (arquivo Fernando Correia de Oliveira)
If one reflects on the myths that humanity has created to explore the experience of change, the mythological figures of time, Chronos and Chairos, are distinctly different from Chaos, who is the symbol of disordered, incomprehensible and constant change of everything all together. This would seem to suggest that the experience of time has from the very start been an experience of change which, however problematic and anxiety-inducing, is ultimately comprehensible to human beings and susceptible of being controlled and made meaningful. Right from the first experience the idea of ‘time’ would seem to suggest an experience of change which is ordered, capable of meaning, and within which choices can be made. If it were not so, there would be no explanation for the mythological figures, e.g. Chaos, which stand for other forms of change and its resulting uncontrollability and incomprehensibility.
quinta-feira, 25 de abril de 2019
Depósito de bandeiras usadas, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks (arquivo Fernando Correia de Oliveira)
All religions have found ways of cancelling out human awareness of the implacable mutability of everything that surrounds and constitutes humankind. The myth of eternity, in Christianity, in which the future ceases forever and choices can no longer be made, takes away from the future life all that most conspicuously distinguishes the human nature of existence – there being a flow of intelligible changes which occur together with other flows of change, dominated by the awareness of death and in which it is possible and indeed necessary to make choices.
quarta-feira, 24 de abril de 2019
Medalhão de porcelana, com pintura da autoria do artista Thomas Hermansader, representando relógio público em Columbia, Pensilvânia (arquivo Fernando Correia de Oliveira)